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曹 逢 甫
Taiwanized Japanese and Taiwan MandarinTwo Case Studies of Language Contact during the Past Hundred Years in Taiwan Feng-fu Tsao
Abstract This article discusses Taiwanized Japanese and Taiwan Mandarin as two instances of language contact that occurred in Taiwan over the past hundred years. While language contact occurs in three different aspects-phonology, lexicon and syntax-due to limited space, this paper deals only with the phonological aspect. In terms of the phonology of Taiwanized Japanese, the most prominent feature is regularization of placement of the high pitch, which in standard Japanese is unpredictable. Taiwanized Japanese regularizes the high pitch by fixing it at the penultimate mora. We argue that this could not have been due to the influence of Taiwanese Minnan, the mother tongue of the majority of people in Taiwan. We assert instead that this was probably due to interaction between the following two factors. First, Taiwanese learners of Japanese as a second language employed the simplification strategy that is so often found in second language learning. Second, the spread of Japanese in Taiwan started out with the Austronesian aborigines, most of whose languages have regular stress patterns with the penult and the final being the most preferred syllables. This fact, coupled with the fact that the penult is the most preferred mora on which the high pitch in Japanese falls, strongly prompted the aboriginal learners of Japanese to pronounce all Japanese words with a penultimate high pitch. In time, this innovation spread to all other speakers in Taiwan. Our discussion of the phonology of Taiwan Mandarin falls into three sec-
tions: the initial consonants, the rimes and the tones. We make a detailed comparison of the phonological systems of both Mandarin and Taiwanese Minnan at the phonemic and subphonemic levels, and our results can account for most phonological features observed in Taiwan Mandarin. Our study also reveals, however, that a complete account of these features requires consideration of two other phenomena, namely, 1. the social milieu in which the language is learned and the way it is taught in school, and 2. hypercorrection. Key Words: language contact, Taiwanized Japanese, Taiwan Mandarin, Taiwanese Minnan, mother tongue transfer